Back in 2006 the first vehicle including a FlexRay network hit the road. A relatively low-risk platform for learning, understanding, and experiencing was the starting point. The mentioned automotive application is known as adaptive drive (by BMW), and surely it presented an important milestone for the new technology, made necessary for competing with established network systems, e.g. controller area networks (CAN), in automotive environments. The deterministic communication method of FlexRay was soon valued by the system architects, opening up new vistas for the design of chassis, powertrain and safety-related applications.
To this day the number of car releases based on FlexRay electronic control units (ECUs) rises continuously. The system complexity regarding software, hardware and network topology has increased. This fact profoundly conflicts with the cost pressure weighting down newly introduced technologies. However, today the car makers (OEMs) transfer their know-how to medium-sized and small car platforms which clearly shows the degree of acceptance obtained for that bus system. Obviously this is one of the results of a close partnership between the OEMs, tier-1 suppliers, and semiconductor manufacturers. The latter make sure to provide cost-optimized FlexRay transceivers according to the best available technology and most recent requirements.
Before FlexRay networks became ready for automotive series production, years of close cooperation of networking experts had taken place. In 2001 the FlexRay consortium was founded with access to broad know-how of automotive systems, including specialists from different domains like software, hardware, electromagnetical conformity, testing, and semiconductor manufacturers. The goal to release an open standard with defined system behavior, interfaces, and parameters was reached successfully in 2005 when the base for the first generation of FlexRay transceivers, called electrical physical layer (EPL) specification revision 2.1, was officially published.
According to the FlexRay definition, a compliant physical layer communication channel consists of four elements: bus driver (BD), twisted pair (TP) bus line, bus termination, and an active star (AS). The BD (transceiver) is an interface